如何理解PostgreSQL中的嵌套循环说明?

问题描述 投票:0回答:1

请回答,非常感谢。

Q1:为什么查询条件a.id = b.id,但是只在开始时扫描了a.id的索引?但是循环的数目这么大?

Q2:“嵌套循环”节点在说明中做什么?

happydb=# EXPLAIN (ANALYZE,VERBOSE) SELECT b.name FROM a,b WHERE a.id = b.id AND b.id < 10000;
                                                                         QUERY PLAN

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------
 Gather  (cost=1000.57..174222.54 rows=18002 width=13) (actual time=5.881..3276.311 rows=19998 loops=1)
   Output: b.name
   Workers Planned: 5
   Workers Launched: 5
   ->  Nested Loop  (cost=0.56..171422.34 rows=3600 width=13) (actual time=3.189..3258.998 rows=3333 loops=6)
         Output: b.name
         Worker 0: actual time=2.591..3259.895 rows=1850 loops=1
         Worker 1: actual time=0.180..3251.631 rows=4081 loops=1
         Worker 2: actual time=1.344..3261.433 rows=555 loops=1
         Worker 3: actual time=8.603..3262.411 rows=3330 loops=1
         Worker 4: actual time=0.821..3259.297 rows=4623 loops=1
         ->  Parallel Seq Scan on public.b  (cost=0.00..141721.20 rows=3600 width=17) (actual time=1.020..3223.285 rows=3333 loops
=6)
               Output: b.id, b.name
               Filter: (b.id < 10000)
               Rows Removed by Filter: 2663334
               Worker 0: actual time=0.054..3237.921 rows=1850 loops=1
               Worker 1: actual time=0.049..3215.862 rows=4081 loops=1
               Worker 2: actual time=0.102..3236.592 rows=555 loops=1
               Worker 3: actual time=0.296..3235.327 rows=3330 loops=1
               Worker 4: actual time=0.055..3188.732 rows=4623 loops=1
         ->  Index Only Scan using idx_rock_id on public.a  (cost=0.56..8.24 rows=1 width=4) (actual time=0.008..0.010 r
ows=1 loops=19998)
               Output: a.id
               Index Cond: (a.id = b.id)
               Heap Fetches: 19998
               Worker 0: actual time=0.011..0.011 rows=1 loops=1850
               Worker 1: actual time=0.008..0.008 rows=1 loops=4081
               Worker 2: actual time=0.044..0.044 rows=1 loops=555
               Worker 3: actual time=0.007..0.007 rows=1 loops=3330
               Worker 4: actual time=0.006..0.015 rows=1 loops=4623
 Planning Time: 0.579 ms
 Execution Time: 3277.727 ms
(31 rows)


最后,根据Laurenz Albe的指导,添加索引后的执行计划要好得多,并且执行时间大大减少。

music=# CREATE INDEX idx_b_id ON b(id);
WARNING:  concurrent insert in progress within table "b"
CREATE INDEX


music=# set max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 6;
SET
music=# EXPLAIN (ANALYZE,VERBOSE) SELECT b.name FROM a,b WHERE a.id = b.id AND b.id < 10000;
                                                                         QUERY PLAN

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------
 Gather  (cost=1388.64..108804.88 rows=20599 width=13) (actual time=1.316..35.770 rows=19998 loops=1)
   Output: b.name
   Workers Planned: 3
   Workers Launched: 3
   ->  Nested Loop  (cost=388.64..105744.98 rows=6645 width=13) (actual time=0.341..27.475 rows=5000 loops=4)
         Output: b.name
         Worker 0: actual time=0.095..26.337 rows=5365 loops=1
         Worker 1: actual time=0.091..26.641 rows=5753 loops=1
         Worker 2: actual time=0.101..28.578 rows=3145 loops=1
         ->  Parallel Bitmap Heap Scan on public.b  (cost=388.08..51229.82 rows=6645 width=17) (actual time=0.298..1.265 rows=5000 loops=4)
               Output: b.id, b.name
               Recheck Cond: (b.id < 10000)
               Heap Blocks: exact=31
               Worker 0: actual time=0.044..1.111 rows=5365 loops=1
               Worker 1: actual time=0.044..1.205 rows=5753 loops=1
               Worker 2: actual time=0.049..0.681 rows=3145 loops=1
               ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_b_id  (cost=0.00..382.93 rows=20599 width=0) (actual time=1.012..1.012 rows=19998 loops=1)
                     Index Cond: (b.id < 10000)
         ->  Index Only Scan using idx_para_select_id on public.a  (cost=0.56..8.19 rows=1 width=4) (actual time=0.004..0.004 rows=1 loops=19998)
               Output: a.id
               Index Cond: (a.id = b.id)
               Heap Fetches: 19998
               Worker 0: actual time=0.004..0.004 rows=1 loops=5365
               Worker 1: actual time=0.003..0.004 rows=1 loops=5753
               Worker 2: actual time=0.004..0.004 rows=1 loops=3145
 Planning Time: 0.264 ms
 Execution Time: 37.025 ms
(27 rows)
postgresql sql-execution-plan
1个回答
0
投票

嵌套循环连接的工作方式如下:

  • PostgreSQL扫描外部表,在这种情况下为b

  • 对于在外部表中找到的每一行,PostgreSQL扫描内部表(在本例中为a,以查找匹配的行。

    由于内部表上的连接条件存在索引,因此PostgreSQL在此使用索引扫描。

因此,对于嵌套循环联接,只能使用内部表上联接条件的索引。

对外部表(b.id < 10000)的扫描也有一个条件,但这与联接无关。您似乎在该列上没有索引,因此使用了顺序扫描。

[内部循环的大量执行由扫描外部表时发现的19998行解释:对于这些行中的每一行,内部表都会被扫描。

几乎所有执行时间都花在了并行顺序扫描上,并且大部分行都被丢弃了,所以我认为以下索引将使查询速度大大提高:

CREATE INDEX ON b (id);
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